Female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision (FC) describes practices that manipulates, or remove the external genital organs in young girls or women. The procedure is performed using blade or shard of glass by a religious leader, town elder, or a medical professional with limited training. The most severe of FGM, involves the removal of the labia suturing together with the vulva, this practice may place the victim’s life at risk. FMG is a widely recognized as a procedure that violates a person’s human right as well as increasing their risk for health complications.

There are four main types of FGM. They include, clitoridectomy; this is done by removing part or the entire clitoris. The second type is excision which is by removing part or all of the clitoris and the inner libia (the lips that surround the vagina) ,with or without the removal of the labia majora the lager outer lips. Type three is infibulation which is also done by narrowing the virginal opening by creating a seal, formed by cutting and repositioning the labia. Other harmful procedures to the female genitals, pricking, piercing, cutting, scraping, or burning the area. FGM is often performed by traditional circumcisers or cutters who do not have any medical ideas or background.’


There are no health benefits to FGM and it can cause serious harm, including:

  • Constant pain
  • Pain and difficult having sex
  • Repeated infections which can lead to infertility
  • Bleeding, cysts and abscesses
  • Problems peeing or holding pee in incontinences
  • Depression , flashbacks and self-harm
  • Problems during labour and childbirth, which can be life threatening for mother and baby.

Some girls die from blood loss or infection as a direct result of the procedure



FGM can make it difficult and painful to have sex, It can also result in reduced sexual desire and lack of pleasurable sensation


FGM and Pregnancy

Some women with FGM may find it difficult to become pregnant and those who do conceive can have problems during childbirth.


FGM and Mental Health

FGM can be an extremely traumatic experience that can cause emotional difficulties throughout life, Including;

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Flashbacks to the time of cutting
  • Nightmares and other sleep problems


Treatment for the FGM (DE infibulation)

Surgery can be performed to open up the vagina if necessary. This is called DE infibulation, sometimes known as reversal, although this name is misleading as the procedure does not replace any removed tissue and will not undo the damage caused. But it can help many problems caused by FGM. Surgery may be recommended for women who are unable to have sex or have difficulty peeing as a result of FGM and pregnant women at risk of problems during labour or delivery as results of FGM.


FGM has been associated with medical sociocultural of FGM is possible through directing resources in an efficient manner. Targeted interventions can include cultural and ethical proponents. Thus, future research should explore the effects of intervention strategies to prevent FGM.



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